Monday, April 30, 2012


Let us read and hear BURUSHASKI. You can read this primer by clicking this link. Alternately you may use:  DOWNLOAD LISTENNARRATION IN BACKGROUND 

BURUSHASKI ALPHABETS: Target no d(6) of HDF- Preservation of language


1.    In a previous POST I have reproduced "BURUSHASKI BÃSE HARPUTZ" from the publication compiled by my late father. I do not rule out a natural affinity for this compilation as the author is my own father, but I would request the readers to go to the reference material given below and see for themselves as to which version conforms to "IPA" (International Phonetic Alphabets) and more relevant to present day mass communication needs.
To see please click:     burushaski-primer, U-TUBE, U-TUBE-II

2. I have not dealt with its relevance to the three other languages viz. 'Guveesky', 'Shina' and 'Berisky". I would request other young researchers to see if "IPA" (and alphabets adopted by Haji Qudratullah Beg) covers all aspects of these languages of Hunza as well.
3. When I try to trace the history (in chronological order), I can find following attempts (I am sure there may be many more but my knowledge is limited):


Dialects of Tribes of the Hindu Khush, from Colonel Biddulph's Work on the Subject (Corrected)
The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland
New Series, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Jan., 1884), pp. 74-119
Article Stable URL:
TRIBES OF THE HINDOO KOOSH by Captain John Biddulph (Later Colonel)- 1876
2. On the Ethnographical Basis of Language, with Special Reference to the Customs and Language of Hunza: CUSTOM AND LANGUAGE OF HUNZA
Leitner, G.W. 1889. The Hunza and Nagyr Hand-book. Being an Introduction to a Knowledge of the Language, Race, and Countries of Hunza, Nagyr, and a Part of Yasin. Calcutta
Leitner, G.W. 1889. “La langue, la religion et les moeurs des habitants du hounza.” Paris: Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Comptes Rendus des Seances de l’Année 1889 4/17:350-54
Leitner, G.W. 1890. “On the Sciences of Language and Ethnography. With General Reference to the Language and Customs of the People of Hunza.” Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 23:109-22
Leitner, G.W. 1891. “On the Ethnographical Basis of Language. With Special Reference to the Customs and Language of Hunza.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 20:204-10
3.Lorimer, David L.R. 1932. “A Burushaski Text from Hunza.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 4:505-31  

OSLO 1938
Co. LTD.                     "l.ES BFLLES LETTRS"

Lorimer, David L.R. 1935-1938. The Burushaski Language. I: Introduction and Grammar; II: Texts and Translation; III: Vocabularies and Index. Oslo: Instituttet for sammenlignende kulturforskning
Lorimer, David L.R. 1935-37. “Nugae Burushaskicae.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies 8:627-36
Lorimer, David L.R. 1937. “Burushaski and its Alien Neighbours. Problems in Linguistic Contagion.” Transactions of the Philological Society 63-98
Lorimer, David L.R. 1938. “A Note on Various Hunza and Shimshali Names.” The Himalayan Journal 10:121-25
Lorimer, E.O. 1939. Language Hunting in the Karakoram. London: George Allen and Unwin [Reprinted Karachi: Indus Publications, 1989]
Lorimer, David L.R. 1962. Werchikwar English Vocabulary. Oslo: Instituttet for sammenlignende kulturforskning
4.  Morgenstierne, Georg. 1945. “Notes on Burushaski Phonology.” Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidens

5.    "BURUSHASKI BÃSE HARPUTZ" (A one pager print out prepared by Capt Sherullah Beg – Retired as Brigadier in 1971 and died 1979) published in 1946 in Bombay (200 copies).

6  "BURUSHASKI BÃSE HARPUTZ" (Primer) by Haji Qudratullah Beg Baltit – HUNZO Printed by Karina Printers 11, Iqbal Paper Market Gawalmandi, Rawalpindi 25 March 1980 – 1000 copies. See (Click):
7. Berger, Hermann. 1956. “Mittelmeerische Kulturpflanzennamen aus dem Burushaski.” Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 9:4-33
Berger, Hermann. 1959. “Die Burushaski-Lehnwörter in der Zigeunersprache.” Indo-Iranian Journal 3:17-43 (Click: BERGER).
Berger, Hermann. 1960. “Bericht über sprachliche und volkskundliche Forschungen im Hunzatal.” Anthropos 55:657-64
Berger, Hermann. 1962. “Der Stand der Burushaski-Forschung.” Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 5:42- This paper by Professor Berger of Heidelberg University was in consultation with Haji Qudratullah Beg after his stay and visit to Hunza in 1959. He offered a watch as a gift to my father – the first ever Favre Lueba Watch in my life. 
Berger, Hermann. 1966. “Remarks on Shina Loans in Burushaski.” Anwar S. Dil (ed.). Shahidullah Presentation Volume. Lahore: Linguistics Research Group of Pakistan (Pakistani Linguistics Series, 7). 79-88
Berger, Hermann. 1968. “Zwei Erzählungen aus dem Hunza-Tal.” Zeitschrift für Kulturaustausch 18:224-5 [Reprinted in Südasien-Anthologie: 44 Übersetzungen aus südasiatischen Literaturen, 1993]
Berger, Hermann. 1974. Das Yasin-Burushaski (Werchikwar). Grammatik, Texte, Wörterbuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (Neuindische Studien, 3)
Berger, Hermann. 1983. “Etymologische Bemerkungen zu einigen auf Geister und Geisterglaube bezügliche Wörter im Burushaski.” P. Snoy (ed.). Ethnologie und Geschichte. Festschrift für Karl Jettmar. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. (Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, 86). 29-33
Berger, Hermann. 1985. “A Survey of Burushaski Studies.” Journal of Central Asia 8:33-7
Berger, Hermann. 1994. “Kombinatorischer Lautwandel im Burushaksi.” Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 19:1-9
Berger, Hermann. 1998. Die Burushaski-Sprache von Hunza und Nager. Teil 1: Grammatik. Teil II: Texte mit Übersetzungen. Teil III: Wörterbuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (Neuindische Studien, 13)
Berger, Hermann, Karl Jettmar & Hugh van Skyhawk. 1996. Libi Kisar: ein Volksepos im Burushaski von Nager. Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Hugh van Skyhawk. Mit Beiträgen und Ergänzungen von Hermann Berger und Karl Jettmar. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz (Asiatische Forschungen. Monographienreihe zur Geschichte, Kultur und Spra

8.  "Basic Burushaski Part First" (Inaai Burushaski Yarkamasung Bago) Published by Burushaski Research Committee Hunza, Gilgit Karachi (year of publication and quantity not available in the book) NOTE: I would request Intellectuals such as Ghulam Qadir Beg, Dr. Abbass HUNZAI, Dr. Faqir Muhammad, Mr Nazir Sabir SI, Dr Jan Alam Khaki, Mr Abdullah Jan, Aitimadi Fida Ali and like to educate the readers on "ALPHABETS" by BURUSHASKI RESEARCH ACADEMY AND Others working in this Field. For Alphabets developed by the Research academy under direction of Allama please visit:
Burushaski-Urdu Dictionary

Also read these excerpts:
Burushaski is a language that feels and records even the slightest differences in the meanings. It has, for example, three different words to say ‘the sound of opening a door’, each one describing the intensity of the process, telling whether it produced a very slight sound, a slight sound or a loud one. Not recording such a sensitive language in the form of a dictionary would have been callous, so Berger compiled Burushaski’s first ever dictionary in collaboration with Naseeruddin Hunzai. Comprising some 50,000 words, it was a Burushaski-German dictionary. Incidentally, all the research material on Burushaski language and culture had been published abroad and in Pakistan there was little material available in Urdu on Burushaski aside from volume number 14 of the Punjab University’s encyclopedia of Urdu literature:


It includes just one article on Burushaski and that too elaborated more on the history of the area rather than the language. German and Canadian universities had published extensive research works on the language and Karachi University has now taken the lead in Pakistan by publishing vital information ond the language in Urdu. Another feat achieved by Karachi University’s Bureau of Compilation, Composition & Translation is the publication of the first ever Burushaski-Urdu dictionary. Published under the guidance of Naseeruddin Hunzai and compiled by the scholars of Burushaski Research Academy, The ‘Awwaleen Burushaski-Urdu Dictionary’ comprises 60,000 words and spreads over three volumes. The first volume was published a few years ago and now the second volume has appeared. 

During the launching ceremony of the second volume held in Karachi recently, the audience were informed by office-bearers of the academy that the third and the last volume was in the pipeline and would soon be published. They also intend to compile a dictionary of Yasin-accent of Burushaski. Bravo! 
Excerpt from “Burushaski is a strange language By Rauf Parekh
Monday, 19 Jul, 2010”

9.  "A Look at Hunza Culture" by Stephen R Wilson ISBN: 969-80232-05-4 Published in1999 by 'Summer Institute of Linguistics' and 'National Institute of Pakistan Studies Quaid-e-Azam University' Pakistan. For "Key to The Orthography" see page 5 to 7.

10. Alwaiz Ghulam-ud-Din Ghulam Hunzai: I am aware of his compilation but it is not listed in the following article published by Mr Zuahaibudin (his grand son), I request him to correct this blog POST.
"Respected viewers

This article contains introduction to Alwaiz Ghulam-ud-Din Ghulam Hunzai, his intellectual/spiritual pursuits and his services to the world of Ismailism and Brushaski language. The focal point of his religious services is enhancement of religious knowledge aiming at spiritual development of the Shia Imami Ismailis Muslims in particular and other Muslim brethren in general.
The scholar is amongst the founding fathers of Brushaski. He has the credit of being the first scholar to give script to the Brushaski and writing around twenty books in the same language.
The climax of his religious work is exhaustive translation of Holy Quran in Brushaski that has made him an authority over the language besides the Quranic knowledge.

Books of Alwaiz Ghulam-ud-Din Ghulam Hunzai

1.      Haft Dour-e-Noor- e-ilahi: (Seven Epochs of Divine Light (Noor) of God).
2.      Hudood-e-Deen: (Boundaries /Principles of Religion)
3.      Majlis-ul-Ma' rifat: (Congrigation of Divine Cognizance)
4.      Diwan-e-Karimi: (Devoutly Poetry Attributed to the Holy name of Imam of the Time Noor Maulana Shah Karim Al Husaini)
5.      Elm-e-Phamol: (Fruit of Knowledge)
6.      Translation of Holy Dua
7.      Manzoomat-e- Farsi: (Persian Poems)
8.      Noor e Shul: (Devotion to the Divine Light)
9.      Ilme Gulshan: (The Garden of Knowledge)
10.  Din-e-Jannat: (Heaven of religion)
11.  Dawat e Ilm: (Invitation to Knowledge)
12.  Auto Biography
13.  Din-e- Hikamat: (Wisdom of Religion)
14.  Ilm-e- Himaltar: (The Gateway to Knowledge)
15.  Translation of Holy Quran

10.   Burushaski Language Documentation Project: This is an ongoing project which is being conducted by Dr. Sadaf Munshi of the University of North Texas. The project aims to create a linguistically analysed and searchable archive of annotated Burushaski texts. Burushaski is a linguistic isolate (i.e., it is unrelated to or unlike any known language of the world), spoken in the Hunza, Nagar and Yasin valleys in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, and (by a small number of people) in Srinagar, the summer capital of the Indian administered state of Jammu & Kashmir.  

INTERNET SEARCH:    Results 1 - +30 of about 176,000 for THE BURUSHASKI LANGUAGE. (0.20 seconds)
NOTE:I have only reproduced a small sample out of the 176,000 that i found, in the following lines.

The Burushaski Language

Burushaski language related products and information at ... Burushaski is spoken/used in Pakistan Language Family. Family: Independent ... - Cached - Similar

2.    Burushaski - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thus Burushaski may once have been a significant literary language. .....
The Burushaski Language (3 vols.). Oslo: Instituttet for Sammenlignende ...
Relationships - Writing system - Phonology - Grammar - Cached - Similar
3.    Burushaski Language « WELCOME TO HUNZATIMES
12 Oct 2008 ...Burushaski is a language isolate not known to be related to any other ....
Burushaski is a double-marking language and word order is ... - Cached - Similar

4.    Burushaski language, alphabet and pronunciation
Details of Burushaski, a language isolate spoken in Pakistan about 50000 people. ...
Burushaski is a language isolate unrelated to any other languages. ... - Cached - Similar
5.    Resources in and about the Burushaski language

Harrassowitz.; The Burushaski Language. Volume 1: Introduction and Grammar. Lorimer, D. L. R. 1935. ... - Cached - Similar 
6.    [PDF] Burushaski − An Extraordinary Language in the Karakoram Mountains ... 
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
by D Grune - 1998 - Related articles
Although Burushaski has been compared to almost any language on earth, ....
The Burushaski language section of the Lonely Planet Walking Guide "Trekking in ... - Similar

7.    ScholarSpace at University of Hawaii at Manoa: Documenting the ...
by S Munshi - 2009 Burushaski is primarily orally-preserved and literacy in the native language is practically zero. Its survival is greatly threatened by multilingualism and ... - Cached

8.    Burushaski language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia
Britannica online encyclopedia article on Burushaski language, language spoken primarily in ... Burushaski is a linguistic isolate, a language whose genetic ... - Cached - Similar

9.    Welcome to - Burushaski Page
Burushaski An Extraordinary Language in the northern areas of Pakistan .... He is the 1st poet of burushaski language. His poetry collections had been ... - Cached - Similar

10.    <article-title>The Burushaski Language</article-title> <contrib ...
THE BURUSHASKI. LANGUAGE. 699 which he has translated is, besides, in Professor ...
The Burushaski language is spoken in the states of Hunza and Nagir (74? ...

11.    The Burushaski language (Open Library)
The Burushaski language. by Lorimer, David Lockhart Robertson Published in 1956, H. Aschehoug, Harvard University Press (Oslo, Cambridge) ... - Cached

12.    Burushaski language at AllExperts
13.    Burushaski ISO/DIS 639-3 bsk is a language isolate spoken by some 50000-60000 Burusho people in the Hunza Nagir Yasin and parts of the Gilgit valleys in ... - Cached

14.    Reference for Burushaski language -
15.    Burushaski (Urdu: بروشسکی - burū́šaskī) is a language isolate spoken by some 87000 (as of 2000) Burusho people in the Hunza, Nagar, Yasin, and parts of the ... - Cached

16.    Burushaski : Language Learners Directory
17.    13 Jul 2007 ... Bibliography of linguistics research on the Burushaski language. (Added: 22-Mar-2005 | Hits: 0 ... Burushaski: A Language of Pakistan ... - Cached - Similar

18.    Translations from Burushaski to English and all other language ...
19.    Axis Translations translates into and from Burushaski with all language combinations. It may be an letter in the Burushaski language that requires ... - Cached

20.    [PDF] Multi Language Text Editor for Burushaski and Urdu through Unicode
22.    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
Pakistan. Burushaski language is not obviously related to any of the surrounding language; the Indic language of Pakistan,. Tibatan Language of China and ... - Similar

23. The Burushaski language (Serie B): D. L. R Lorimer: Books
24. The Burushaski language (Serie B): DL R Lorimer: Books. - Cached

26.    Bibliography of linguistics research on the Burushaski language. ... Burushaski: A Language of Pakistan - Sociolinguistic and bibliographic information on ... - Cached

27.    File:Burushaski language.png - Wikimedia Commons
28.    27 Dec 2009 ... Description, Burushaski language.png. Español: Extensión actual (rojo) y pasada (magenta) de las variedades de burushaski: Dialectos de ... - Cached

29.    Burushaski as an Indo-European Kentum language | Indologica
30.    8 Feb 2010 ... The evidence shows that in the Burushaski language, the Indo-European labiovelars and palatovelars have coalesced with the velars, ... - Cached

31. Websters Burushaski - English Thesaurus Dictionary (Paperback)

~ Philip M. Parker (Author)
32.  Burushaski - An Extraordinary Language in the Karakoram Mountains: Dick Grune,
Aug. 17, 1998

International Phonetic Alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic ... - Cached - Similar

International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)

Details of the IPA, the phonetic alphabet that can be used to represent the sounds of any language. - Cached - Similar


                                                                                                23 -11-36
Qudratullah Beg son of Subadar Muhabatullah Beg of Baltit, Hunza, has asked me to give him a recommendation for employment.
I can say that he worked with me from April 1934 to August 1935 when I was in Kashmir and Hunza studying the Burushaski Language and the culture of burussho, and that I found him exceptionally intelligent & very keen and hard working. I have no doubt he can do well any work to which he gave his mind. He can read, write and speak Urdu and Persian, and has some knowledge of English. I hope he may be given the opportunity of Employing his abilities on useful work.

                        (Lt.Col D.L.R LORIMER CIE
                                                Political agent Gilgit 1920-1924)
                                                                                                            32 Parkwar,
                                                                                                Nelwyn Garden City, Herts.
                                                                                                            25- 4- 60.
Dear Qudratullah Beg,
I was very glad to receive your Air letter dated 5- 4- 60 and to get all the news of yourself, and your brothers, and your children- quite a large family!
I am sorry but I am afraid that I cannot do much to satisfy your wishes.
I have never seen any of the photos of your relations that you say were taken by the Sahibs of the early days: Col. Biddulph, Col. Lockhart, Col. Durand, and Dr. Robertson; nor have I ever heard such photos existed.
Also I do not know about any photos that the scout officers may have taken of your Father. I have not seen, or been in touch with, any officer of the Scouts since I left Gilgit in 1924.
As regards Burushaski publications, I have had no book about Burushaski published since I worked with you in 1935.
I did some work on minor subjects, and preliminary work on my 1934-35 Burushaski material before the War, but when the War came I gave up my private work and took up public work. Then after the War, my wife died and my daughter, who had married, went out to South Africa. Since then life alone, with or without a paid Housekeeper, has not been easy for me, and I have not been able to do much language “work”. In recent years, however, I have been working off and on, on a Werhikwar vocabulary. It is not likely ever to be published, however, as printing has now become so expensive.
            To make anything out of all the Burushaski and Hunza material which I collected in 1934-35 would take me years. I have done a lot of preliminary work on it long ago. I have type the Texts, made rough translations of them, card- indexed all the works, and indexed the subject matter, but I shall never be able to make anything out of it for publication now. I am 83 years old and have not much more to go. When I die, all my collected language material will go to the School of Oriental & African Studies (of the University of London). Where it will be available to any scholar who may be capable of using any of it. It includes Burushaski, Shina, Khowar, also Wakhi, Werhikwar and Dumaki, which have been worked out by me), and two dialects of Modern Persian, which I studied in Persia in 1906-08 and 1913-14.
In order to do the best I can, I have spent some hours looking out off printing of some articles I wrote in pre- War years. I am sending you four   five which refer to Burushaski, or in some way to Hunza. The B3OS 1936 one is based partly on information I got from you. I doubt whether you will understand or be interested in these articles but they can serve as keepsakes , reminders of our association in the past. If you do not want them, please return them, as I have not many spare copies, and it will probably not be possible to get more.
            I shall send them by ordinary, not air, post.
You certainly belong to a family that has distinguished itself in the past, and is doing so at the present day.
You yourself must be an important person in Mulai Jamã’at, Your journey to Asuan and the Bait ul Muqaddas must have been interesting, as also making the acquaintance of the new Agha Khan. I wonder if he visit Hunza.
I am glad to hear of the distinctions gained by your brother, and I am interested to hear of your 7 children. I hope that the 3 sons will all have successful careers, but soon there will be no room in Hunza for the rising generation. They will have to seek their fortunes in Pakistan or the wider world outside, and eventually cease to be Burusho, or even Hunzukuts, which will be sad! What are you going to do about  your daughters? In the modern world which you are now joining you must have them educated too. Meanwhile I hope that you will convey my compliments to them as modern “Young Ladies”: who aren’t too shy:
Now it only remained to me to say how glad I am to have made contact with you again and to know that things are going well with you.
                                    With all good wishes for the future.
                                    Yours sincerely,

                                    (Lt.Col. D.L.R.Lorimer)

Wazirzada Qudrat Ullah Beg
Gilgit Agency,                                                          25-4-60
W. Pakistan                                      I have already posted the off prints by ordinary letter- post
                                                                                    (Short Signature)